Pope Francis and the ICCJ on the 50th anniversary of Nostra Aetate

Pope Francis addressed a meeting of the International Council of Christians and Jews in Rome yesterday, on the fiftieth anniversary of the seminal Nostra Aetate declaration by Pope Paul VI in 1965 which redefined the relationship between the Catholic church and non-Christian religions.

Ron Hoenig from the Australian Council of Christians and Jews reports from Rome that
More than 300 delegates at the Rome conference of the International Council of Christians and Jews shook the hand of Pope Francis at the end of an emotional audience with his Holiness in Vatican city.

The audience included an address to the Pope by ICCJ President Phillip Cunningham in which he informed the Pope of the dialogue work of the council and the presentation of three gifts to the Pope by members of the ICCJ executive board, including Australian second vice president Michael Trainor.

Among these gifts was a statue that shows the female figures of the Church and the Synagogue standing proudly and powerfully together.

The statue was commissioned by the Council to embody a new vision of mutuality and respect between the Church and Judaism and to counter the traditional supercessionist representation of the relationship between a triumphant Christianity and a bowed and defeated figure of Judaism that still appears in many churches in Europe.

In honour of the long ongoing friendship between the Pope and the Argentinian Rabbi Abraham Skorka, identical versions of the statue were presented to the Pope and Rabbi Skorka.

In what is seen by delegates as an extraordinary symbol of support for the Council’s work, the pope then personally greeted every one of the delegates.

Here is the English translation of the Pope’s address in Italian on the fiftieth anniversary of Nostra Aetate, as reported by the Vatican:

Dear Brothers and Sisters,

I am pleased that your meeting is taking place this year in Rome, the city where the Apostles Peter and Paul are buried. For all Christians, both Apostles are an important point of reference: they are like “pillars” of the Church. Here in Rome, we also find the most ancient Jewish community in Western Europe, whose origins can be traced to the time of the Maccabees. Christians and Jews therefore have lived together in Rome for almost two thousand years, even though their relations in the course of history have not been without difficulty.

The development of an authentic fraternal dialogue has been made possible since the Second Vatican Council, following the promulgation of the Declaration Nostra Aetate. This document represents a definitive “yes” to the Jewish roots of Christianity and an irrevocable “no” to anti-Semitism. In celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of Nostra Aetate, we are able to see the rich fruits which it has brought about and to gratefully appraise Jewish-Catholic dialogue. In this way, we can express our thanks to God for all the good which has been realized in terms of friendship and mutual understanding these past fifty years, as his Holy Spirit has accompanied our efforts in dialogue. Our fragmented humanity, mistrust and pride have been overcome thanks to the Spirit of Almighty God, in such a way that trust and fraternity between us have continued to grow. We are strangers no more, but friends, and brothers and sisters. Even with our different perspectives, we confess one God, Creator of the Universe and Lord of history. And he, in his infinite goodness and wisdom, always blesses our commitment to dialogue.

Christians, all Christians, have Jewish roots. Because of this, since its inception, the International Council of Christians and Jews has welcomed the various Christian confessions. Each of them, in its own way, has drawn near to Judaism, which in its time, has been distinguished by diverse trends and sensibilities. The Christian confessions find their unity in Christ; Judaism finds its unity in the Torah. Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the Word of God made flesh in the world; for Jews the Word of God is present above all in the Torah. Both faith traditions find their foundation in the One God, the God of the Covenant, who reveals himself through his Word. In seeking a right attitude towards God, Christians turn to Christ as the fount of new life, and Jews to the teaching of the Torah. This pattern of theological reflection on the relationship between Judaism and Christianity arises precisely from Nostra Aetate (cf. no. 4), and upon this solid basis can be developed yet further.

In its reflection on Judaism, the Second Vatican Council took account of the ten theses of Seelisberg, formulated in that Swiss town in 1947. These theses are closely linked to the founding of the International Council of Christians and Jews. We can say that there was already in embryonic form an initial concept of cooperation between your organization and the Catholic Church. This cooperation was officially inaugurated after the Council, and especially after the establishment of our Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews in 1947. This Commission of the Holy See always follows your organization’s activities with great interest, in particular the annual international meetings, which offer a notable contribution to Jewish-Christian dialogue.

Dear friends, I thank all of you for this visit and I wish you well for your meeting. May the Lord bless you and keep you in his peace. I ask you please to pray for me. Thank you.

Religion: Catalyst for violence or peace?

rcvp

The Australian Catholic Church’s Broken Bay Institute (BBI) will be running an e-conference from Sydney on the topic “Religion: Catalyst for violence or peace? Probing the Abrahamic traditions for answers” on Tuesday 23 June at 12 noon NZST.

If you’re in Wellington, you’re invited by the NZ Catholic Bishops Committee for Interfaith Relations to join a live-stream group session at Connolly Hall, Guildford Terrace, Thorndon at that time.

If you’re not in Wellington or can’t make it to Connolly Hall, you can register separately and join the e-conference on the BBI’s web site at: http://www.bbi.catholic.edu.au/econference-registration.

You can also download this handsome poster for more information and to share with your friends.

One way or the other, we hope to see you there!

 

The meaning of Abraham in Assyrian

One of our Abrahamic Council members, Father Aprem Pithyou of the Ancient Church of the East recently shared this explanation of the meaning of Abraham:

We Eastern Orthodox Christians believe Abraham has a special place in our religions, and even the letters of his name has special significance.

The name of Abraam consist of 4 letters which was before called Abram, the the Lord said you will be called from now ever Abraham not Abram, adding the letter H in his name. So In our believe that each letter in Abraham name means something: A means Aba (Father), B means Bra (Son), R means Rookha D’qoothsha (Holy Spirit), and M means Malkootha (kingdom). When Abraham believed in God, and intended to sacrifice his son Isaac according to the order of God, the Lord added H in his name and that mean Haimanotha (faith) because, it is said in our Old Testament: Abraham believed in the Lord and was counted to him by the Lord righteousness (Genesis 15:6), so the Lord added H. in his name and that means that Abraham can not enter the Kingdom if he doesn’t believe in the Lord.

In summary:

  • A: Aba (Father)
  • B: Bra (Son)
  • R: Rookha D’qoothsha (Holy Spirit)
  • H: Haimanootha (belief)
  • M: Malkootha (kingdom)

Paul Morris – Intertwined Paths: Christians, Muslims, Jews

At the re-launch of the Abrahamic Council, Paul Morris, Professor of Religious Studies at Victoria University, gave the following talk.


paulTēnā koutou, tēnā koutou, tēnā tatou katoa; Shalom Aleychem; As salamu alykum; a peaceful good evening to you all. It is an honour and a privilege to be here this evening of Tuesday 14th day of April in the year 2015; or the 25th day of the month of Nissan in the year 5775; or 25th day of Jumada al Thani in the year 1436 (and, of course, 14 o Paenga Whawha i te tau 2015 te ra). We all, both share a contemporary reality – Aotearoa New Zealand with its Christian heritage although increasing secular culture – and simultaneously also inhabit distinctive and different religious universes with different histories and points of departure and arrival.

We are here to re-launch the Wellington Council of Christians and Jews (CCJ) as the Wellington Abrahamic Council of Jews, Christians and Muslims. This is a timely development as Muslims have been welcome at meetings of the Wellington CCJ since 2007. In 1995 the International Council of Christians and Jews (ICCJ) established its “Abrahamic Forum”, a trilateral Jewish-Christian-Muslim committee, to reflect the growing importance of Islam in Europe and the US, the essential and urgent need for dialogue, tolerance and respect, and to work at the overcoming of growing fears and prejudices. Since 2010 the ICCJ has formally expanded the Christian Jewish dialogue to a Christian Muslim Jewish trialogue. My report entitled in English, “Trying Trialogues”, failed to maintain its pun when translated into German, Turkish, Hebrew or Arabic!

The Council of Christians and Jews (CCJ), was founded in 1942 by Chief Rabbi Hertz and Archbishop Temple during the Nazi persecution of European Jewry. The CCJ was the product of a profound crisis. Seeing Cardinal Dew in the audience here tonight, it is interesting to note that the Catholics pulled out in 1954 on a theological issue returning only after the Vatican II Council. Christian Jewish dialogue started haltingly and defensively with participants finding it difficult to frankly address the history and legacy of Christian anti-semitism and anti-Judaism, and the recent horrors. Issues of openness, proselytization, prejudice, textual interpretation, and kashrut have kept life tense ever since.

Years of effort, startling bravery, honesty and regular personal contact have led in 38 countries around the world, including New Zealand, to groups of people, Christians and Jews, now generationally, who have come to know each other and each other’s families. They have learned to trust one another and have come to understand each other’s religious lives, values and concerns. The last sixty years have shown that it is possible, if never easy, to further the project of overcoming the past and to learn to live reasonably peacefully together. It is important to record that this has been an ongoing struggle and at times these relationships have been fragile, and have sometimes broken down, but the groups have survived, grown stronger, and continue in their efforts to make the world a safer, and I would say, holier place.

The realities of migration and post 9/11 geopolitics demand that we too acknowledge that we – Jews, Christians and Muslims – face a crisis. A crisis of anti-Islam and anti-Muslim sentiment, a resurgence of anti-semitism, and an upsurge of religious violence, and that it’s time for us to be courageous and honest with each other and try together to make the world a better place. But is the invention of this new notion “Abrahamic religions” anything more than a perfectly legitimate idea, that of, the inclusion of Muslims into the mainstream Judeo-Christian fold in Europe and America? I’ll return to this question in a moment below.

I want to spend my remaining allotted time looking at the notion of the “Abrahamic” academically and to make a point that I hope is helpful. “Abrahamic religions” is a very recent coinage and has been utilized most widely since 2001. Peter Berger suggests that it dates from its inception as a response to 9/11. Whether this is actually the case or not it is clear that since then it has been widely in use in the academy and beyond. It has been valorized and challenged, debated and discussed. In fact, Abrahamic religions has become a new academic area as reflected in the new MA degree at the University of London offered by Heythrop College; a new Oxford Studies in the Abrahamic Religions series by Oxford University Press, kicking off with The Oxford Handbook of the Abrahamic Religions (edited by Adam Silverstein and Guy G. Stroumsa). There is also the Oxford Professorship in the Study of Abrahamic Religions, until recently held by Guy Stroumsa (2009-2013). It is the subject of scores of academic articles and a number of scholarly monographs. While some work is critical and cautious what is developing is a wholly new understanding of the intertwined histories of Judaism, Christianity and Islam (to put them in academic chronological order). This promising new history offers a range of insights that might inform our thinking today in Wellington and beyond.

In his inaugural lecture, (“From Abraham’s Religion to the Abrahamic Religions,” in Historia Religionum 3 (2011), 11-22*) Professor Stroumsa begins with the very different Jewish, Christian and Muslim traditions of Abraham. He cites Eusebius of Caesarea who begins his Ecclesiastical History by reporting that Christ’s religion was discovered by Abraham and those “lovers of God that followed him”. He goes on to say that while Jews claims to be these very followers they are not, the new church is! He further traces these interpretive traditions in the literature of the rabbis and the Church Fathers. A particularly interesting reference is to Sozomen, a theologian from Gaza around 400, who describes the now lost annual festival of Abraham at Mamre, which attracted not only Christians who came to acknowledge the spiritual father of their faith; Jews to remember their “patriarch”; and, pagans because angels had appeared there! We, Jews, Christians and Muslims, have all fought to claim Abraham Avinu, Our father Abe, to be our exclusive progenitor but he belongs to all three traditions and seemingly to others too from the region.

Stroumsa explores “Abraham’s religion” (Millatu Ibrāhīm [Millat e Ibrāhīm] from the Qu’ran (Sura al-Baqarah [2]: 130) and traces Jewish and Christian responses to it and notes that these traditions differ markedly from most post-9/11 usages of the term “Abrahamic religions”.

What is the study of the Abrahamic Religions? Put simply it is the three religious traditions studied together not in isolation from each other. And comparatively, that is, not in terms of which is better or worse but exploring the many similarities and equally the significant differences. The study of Christianity, Islam and Judaism (the put them in order of population) in this way reveals constantly overlapping histories often missed when limiting research to a single tradition, or even to two of them. Scholarly informed research on the three traditions is as yet thin on the ground and in many cases has been avoided by religious scholars on theological grounds. Besides some comparative philosophical work on the Muslim, Jewish and Christian re-workings of Greek philosophy and a number of local studies there is a dearth of comparative research on the three religions.

Once we free ourselves, however, of the idea that each tradition is somehow a completely separate monolithic entity travelling solo through human history and begin to explore the three great Mediterranean religions on the same page, we discovers that these three traditions have an unbroken record of the creative exchange of ideas, rituals, practices, institutions, myths, ethical insights, philosophical doctrines, and of course, goods and services. That is, looking at Islam, Christianity and Judaism together, anchored in specific local historical and cultural contexts. When we examine the Abrahamic religions historically, structurally and phenomenologically we learn that all three traditions have radically developed, critically adapted, and dynamically changed, together.

The truth is that there is no history of Judaism without sustained reference to Islam and Christianity; just as there is no story of Christianity without extensive consideration of Judaism and Islam; or, that that there is a history of Islam that does not require the study if its continual engagements with Christianity and Judaism. This is an academic viewpoint but one that I consider to be entirely consistent to the theologies of the Abrahamic religions. To sum up: Islam, Judaism and Christianity developed in interaction with one another.

One recent example of this new approach is David Nirenberg’s new book, Neighboring Faiths: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism in the Middle Ages and Today (Chicago University Press, 2104). He emphasises their “overlapping geographics”, and writes: “Islam, Christianity, and Judaism have never been independent of each other: that is as neighbors, in close relation to one another, that they have constantly transformed themselves, reinterpreting both their scriptures and their histories. Their pasts are not discrete, independent, or stable”, and the most important consequence of this for him, is that, “neither are their presents or their futures”. (12). He calls this interdependence, “coproduction,” that is, the religions coproduce each other in a dense network of identification and dis-identification. His notion of “ambivalent neighborliness” is intended to capture something of the array of responses to the neighbour “ranging from love and toleration to total extermination” (2).

Back to Abraham: Jews, Muslims and Christians have overlapping but very different traditions concerning Abraham – a topic for another lecture (see, Carol Bakhos, The Family of Abraham (Harvard University Press, 2104)) and like all our traditions each of us implicitly and at times explicitly, debates or challenges the teachings of the other two faiths. We should not fear this. We should not fear that not everything is similar and that they are real differences and acknowledge that these differences, in part, allow us to understand ourselves and each other.

Abrahamic religions allow us to recognise both our distinctiveness and differences and the realities of our historical interactions and their profound impact on our histories. We cannot return to the past – and anyway it was very different from what we image it to be – but we can create the future together.

Tonight is an opportunity to more beyond our separate histories to create a living reality in which we – Jews, Christians and Muslims – acknowledge our special relationships, something that is not an alternative to broader interfaith relationships but the recognition that our sacred theological histories, so often seen as parallel lines are in fact intertwined and actually intersect in the figure of Abraham/Avraham/Ibrahim and again and again thereafter through time, calling us to understand ourselves and each other as Children of Abraham; Benai Avraham; Banu Ibrahim.

Let me end with the blessing from Numbers (6:26) from the Bible:

The Lord lift up his countenance upon you, and give you peace.

יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ, וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם

Paul Morris

* See also his, “Athens, Jerusalem and Mecca: the Patristic Crucible of the Abrahamic Religions,” Studia Patristica 62/10 (2013), 153-168; and his monograph, The End of Sacrifice: Religious Transformations of Late Antiquity (Chicago University Press, 2009).

Wellington Abrahamic Council formed

Muslims Welcomed by Jews and Christians
15 March 2015

Muslims will take up full representation at the Wellington Council of Christians and Jews, which will re-launch as the Wellington Abrahamic Council on 14 April at an event at Parliament hosted by the Attorney General, Hon Chris Finlayson.

Jewish Co-chair Dave Moskovitz said that the Council had welcomed Muslims at all meetings since 2007, and it was now time to make the relationship more formal. “The three Abrahamic religions share a great deal of common history, theology, ethics, and practice. We have important and significant differences too. Making peace begins with each of us, and is our collective responsibility. It’s too important to leave to world leaders.”

The Council’s aim is to foster understanding, friendship and trust between the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The name “Abrahamic” comes from our common prophet Abraham, who according to our traditions proclaimed monotheism some 3800 years ago.

Sultan Eusoff is the CEO of the Federation of Islamic Associations NZ and will become the Muslim Co-chair on 14 April. Eusoff said, “We are happy and excited to cement our already strong relationships with our Jewish and Christian brothers and sisters. We have learned a lot about each other, and there is plenty more to learn and share.”

Christian Co-chair Rev Jenny Chalmers added, “There has never been a more important time to join together. Islamophobia and antisemitism are on the rise, against a backdrop of global tensions that are attributed to religious differences. Mutual understanding is the key to effective communication and progress in our relationships. It’s not always easy, but we’re all committed to this sacred work.”

The Launch of the Wellington Abrahamic Council of Jews, Christians and Muslims will take place at Parliament House in Wellington at 5:30pm on Tuesday 14 April.

Media Release: Wellington Jews, Christians, and Muslims denounce Charlie Hebdo killings

one-news-hebdo

Wellington Jews, Christians, and Muslims denounce Charlie Hebdo killings

Wellington Council of Christians and Jews
9 January 2015

Wellington Jews, Christians, and Muslims denounce the Charlie Hebdo killings in Paris as an attack on the basic freedoms which enable us to practice our religions and coexist in a democratic society.

A prayer vigil will be held at the Kilbirnie Islamic Centre this Sunday 11 January at 3pm. All are welcome.

Wellington Council of Christians and Jews Jewish Co-Chair Dave Moskovitz said “Charlie Hebdo had published material that was deeply offensive to each of our religions. However, each of our religions holds life sacred, and there is no possible excuse for killing someone for something they have said or written.”

Christian Co-Chair Rev Jenny Chalmers said “Our thoughts and prayers go out to the families of all of the people involved. We urge France and the world to ‘turn the other cheek’, and not allow extremism to silence the voice of freedom.”

WCCJ Muslim member Sultan Eusoff added “New Zealand Muslims were greatly dismayed by the killings, which we view as counter to the teachings of the Koran. We must not allow the acts of extremists to define our religions, or sully the excellent relationships we have in New Zealand with other religions and wider society.”

ENDS

Dave Moskovitz 027 220 2202
Rev Jenny Chalmers 021 311 952
Sultan Eusoff 021 786 262

Euthanasia Seminar Audio

The Council held a public seminar on Wednesday 22 October 2014 looking at the views of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim faiths on euthanasia.

The three speakers were:

  • Dr John Kleinsman, Director, Nathaniel [Cathoilic] Centre for Bioethics
  • Dr Khalid Sandhu, Muslim Physician and
  • Yitzchak Mizrahi, Rabbi, Wellington Jewish Community Centre

Dr Sinead Donnelly, a palliative care specialist at Wellington Hospital also participated in the Q&A after the talks.

The main questions posed to the speakers were:

  • Are there situations in which ending the suffering of a sick person can be justified?
  • Can euthanasia be safely implemented?
  • Should people who wish to die be forced to stay alive?

Listen to or download Dr Kleinsman’s talk:

Listen to or download Dr Sandhu’s talk:

Listen to or download Rabbi Mizrahi’s talk:

Jews, Muslims, and Christians United in Call for Peace

NZ Jews, Christians, and Muslims United in Call for Peace

MEDIA RELEASE
Wellington, 23 July 2014

Jewish, Christian, and Muslim leaders in Wellington issued a joint statement today regarding the current conflict in Gaza and Israel:

“We call upon all of the parties involved in the current conflict in Gaza and Israel to cease hostilities, and sit down at the negotiating table and do the hard work necessary to obtain a just and lasting peace. We urge all New Zealand Jews, Christians, and Muslims to pray for peace.”

Dave Moskovitz, Jewish Co-Chair, Wellington Council of Christians and Jews
Jenny Chalmers, Christian Co-Chair, Wellington Council of Christians and Jews
Sultan Eusoff, CEO, Federation of Islamic Association of New Zealand